Saturday, November 9, 2019

Let There Be LiFi !!!!!!!!!

In 2015 the average number of connected devices per household was 3.47. That’s an increase from 1.84 in 2010. By 2020 that number is expected to be 6.58.
Although thanks to the universal adoption of smartphones and the increasing ubiquity of smart speakers, not to mention smart TVs, games consoles and computers that number will likely be much higher.
While the average family wireless router can accommodate around 250 devices, the growing number of wireless devices on the network are all competing for bandwidth.
It should come as no surprise that Netflix starts buffering when someone starts downloading a weighty game update on their Xbox in the other room - even with decent download speeds.
Bandwidth is finite and some devices are far hungrier than others. The more connected devices, the more bandwidth is shared.
But there’s a far bigger issue. The radio spectrum upon which we rely to send and receive the prodigious amounts of data we create is becoming crowded. Experts fear, between the ever-expanding Internet of Things and increased military usage, this will lead to spectrum crunch. Or - to put it another way - total network collapse.
In a world in which people expect connectivity with their cappuccino and broadband on their bus ride, this is very bad news indeed.
Step into the LiFi
As any self-respecting sci-fi geek will attest, light works incredibly well as a means of transmitting data. Star Trek had it nailed years ago.
It’s why BT has spent billions of pounds replacing copper wiring with fibre optics across the UK. And will be spending, most likely, billions more to finish the job.
It’s needed too because as a country, the UK has an insatiable need for data - like most of the developed world. Customer expectations are so high that being able to connect to the internet, it has become a factor when deciding where to eat and even shop.
Coffee shops can offer all the pumpkin spice skinny hot chocolates they want. If it doesn’t come with free WiFi then indications are trade will suffer.
Unlocking new levels of data and bandwidth - over-priced novelty beverage aside - is a genuine priority for consumers, tech firms and governments alike.
There is an unspoken recognition that we all thirst for information, whether it’s researching soft robotics or which of the Love Island couples are still together.
What Is LiFi?
LiFi - a mobile wireless optical network technology - looks like it may be playing a major part in next-gen communications.
It works by transmitting data via rapid modulation of LEDs. Imperceptible to the human eye, the data spectrum for visible light is 1,000 times greater than radio frequencies. Developers of the technology have tested LiFi at speeds of 224Gbps in lab conditions. Although they expect 1Gbps in the real world. Which is still 100 times faster than conventional WiFi.
What this means is the world is going digital for real this time.
Radio waves - as with your common or garden wireless radio - are prone to interference. If you live in a house built around the turn of the 20th century, good luck getting decent signal through those thick interior walls.
LiFi technology on the other hand is a tight area of illumination which means little or no interference. It’s also far more secure because it’s a confined beam of light. As opposed to a scattergun broadcast of radio waves that can be easily intercepted.
Hence why doing...more or less anything on an unsecured WiFi network is akin to handing your wallet to a criminal while whispering your pin number in their ear.
As a more secure, more reliable and faster successor to WiFi, experts predict LiFi as an industry will be worth $75.5 billion by 2023.
There’s No LiFi Without Darkness
Of course, the technology isn’t perfect.
For a start, LiFi doesn’t work in the dark. Obviously. Although the LEDs can be dimmed to near darkness - but not off - and still perform. Tests have proven the LiFi technology enabled LEDs can perform at high levels when turned down to just 60 Lux.
This broadens LiFi’s applications as it can be used where light levels need to be low - such as theatres and other venues.
One of the biggest advantages of LiFi also happens to be one of its drawbacks. LiFi relies on a confined beam of light to send and receive data. This requires line of sight in order to work.
While LiFi can still work if there are surfaces upon which the light can bounce, the signal and performance will be affected. This poses a challenge for the developers of this technology as it effectively demands a relay system that passes the signal from one LED to another.
Otherwise, something as simple as walking from one end of the house to another would be an insufferable experience.
For these reasons, many see LiFi as being a complementary technology to WiFi. As even a slight decrease in load on WiFi networks would make a marked difference.

Where LiFi will win big however is in environments where the technology and/or the person will stay largely static.
Offices, where even laptop users tend to stay in roughly the same place, can enjoy prodigious download speeds without the irritation of being booted off the WiFi because too many people are listening to Spotify.
Similarly, with the innovations surrounding in-flight entertainment on the way, LiFi is an obvious and highly effective way of providing passengers with a reliable, fast service on which to watch streamed content.
On the basis that most passengers only get up to stretch their legs or use the facilities, line of sight won’t be an issue. Most passengers would happily pay for an internet connection that powerful when they’re on a long flight. Especially if they have young children who need entertaining.
LiFi is rapidly advancing. Investments from Nokia, Deutsche Telekom and Liberty Global (to name a few) signals that there is a real determination and drive to perfect this emerging technology.
This is underpinned by early adopters installing the technology in their offices around the world. Between the two halves of the market, they are cultivating a ready and eager market.
Companies like Pure LiFi are putting all their focus into refining the technology in order to overcome the biggest objections holding wider adoption.
It may well be that for the first few years LiFi - like WiFi in its infancy - is reserved for the devices that can benefit the most from it. So homes and businesses will have a mixture of technology solutions.
Smart speakers, smart TVs, gaming consoles and desktop computers get the benefit of LiFi as they are static more or less throughout their entire lifespan. Smartphones and laptops will have to slum it on the WiFi. But as those devices lack the processing power anyway, that’s not necessarily the end of the world.
The dominion of WiFi is such that for LiFi to stand any chance of competing, it needs to be a near perfect alternative. For LiFi to achieve mass-market appeal there is no room for a Betamax vs VHS showdown. It simply has to be the next technological step, like moving from dial-up to broadband.
It just remains to be seen whether or not the average customer can see the light.

Goodlight: 3,000 LED lights at car parks save owners 80 per cent

NeuxPark have completed a major Goodlight LED project to refit the lighting in four international station car parks in the South of England with long life, energy efficient LED lamps and luminaires from the Goodlight range. 3,000 LED luminaires including 400 emergency kits were installed in multi-storey and open car parks across these sites, providing the car park owners with up to 80 per cent energy savings.

NeuxPark is a specialist contractor providing bespoke products and niche projects in the commercial and industrial sectors, who have a vast amount of experience within the rail sector, so welcomed this opportunity. NeuxPark were commissioned to replace the outdated fluorescent and metal halide luminaires in the car parks at St Pancras, Ebbsfleet, Stratford and Ashford, with a total capacity of up to 8,000 spaces. The new luminaires reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint as well as providing brighter illumination for increased safety and security. The operators of the car parks sought longer lasting lights to reduce the frequency of replacement thus eliminating maintenance costs.

NeuxPark, an approved partner for Goodlight, installed a selection of Goodlight LED lights which supports a five year guarantee and a specified 50,000 hour lifespan. These included G360 LED SON Lamps which deliver a high lumen output of 140Lm/W brightness from its 360° beam angle. Due to its advanced cooling system, the G360 LED chips can be run up to 30% brighter, which is perfect for a car park environment. Also specified were retrofit T8 LED Tubes that achieve up to an impressive 120Lm/W brightness. Eco LED Battens were also chosen together with Emergency Self-Test versions, delivering up to 110Lm/W. In addition, GX1 LED Low Bays were selected, delivering a bright output of 110Lm/W.

Commenting on the project, Richard Jenkins, Technical Director at NeuxPark said, “It was at the forefront of the clients specification to deliver the following end result – reduced carbon footprint, lower energy consumption, commercial cost reduction, safer working and public environments, zero maintenance cost, quality well-built products, increased lumen output and enhanced lux levels for this high risk environment. The Goodlight LED products met every requirement and together Goodlight and NeuxPark delivered an exceptional end result.”

Friday, September 16, 2016

Citing Health Concerns, Some Cities Consider Dimmer LED Streetlights

 In the last several years, New York, Los Angeles, Houston, Seattle and other U.S. cities have installed high-intensity, white LED streetlights. In all, at least 13 percent of outdoor lighting is now LED, and many communities that haven’t yet made the switch are rushing to do so. But health concerns, heightened by a recent warning by the American Medical Association (AMA), are giving pause to some local officials, spurring them to consider less-intense LED alternatives. Honolulu, Phoenix and smaller cities in Arizona, California, Florida and Massachusetts are among those who are taking the health warnings seriously.

Cree revamps entire LED line of better bulbs

Cree, Inc. announces a completely new portfolio of next generation LED bulbs aimed at delivering better light experiences for consumers. The new bulb portfolio consists of 25 new products, offering better light quality, better dimming, better lifetime, better warranty and better pricing to deliver on the true promise of LED technology to make lighting better than it was before.

“Cree is committed to innovation and unlocking the true potential of LED technology,” said Betty Noonan, Cree chief marketing officer and general manager, consumer lighting. “Many new LED products fail to live up to the promise of LED technology; shouldn’t you choose a better bulb when it will live in your house for decades?  Cree believes it’s now more important than ever to give consumers a better choice.”

Notable features in the new bulbs include superior lifetimes, with most projected to last 22+ years and some up to 32 years.  Color rendition is improved, with smoother, quieter dimming to levels as low as 1 percent.  Cree’s market-leading “Candlelight Dimming,” available in the new candelabra bulb, mimic’s a true candle flame with a warmer 1800K color when dimmed.

The new Cree bulbs meet or surpass the requirements for ENERGY STAR product certification and are covered by a 10 year 100 percent satisfaction guarantee – one of the strongest warranties in the industry. The new bulb portfolio includes new A-lamps, BR lamps, PAR lamps and Candelabra lamps, as well as a new series of recessed downlight retrofit products.

Friday, September 2, 2016

Achieving Optimum LED Performance With Quantum Dots

The invention of blue LEDs and the subsequent rapid rate of development of new phosphor and down-converting technologies have enabled the phenomenal growth of all LEDs in general lighting applications. White LEDs initially employed the use of a blue LED combined with a single phosphor with broad yellow emission. However, the light quality provided by this relatively simple solution was less than satisfactory, particularly in the red part of the visible spectrum. But more recently, new phosphors and phosphor combinations (green-yellow plus red) have been developed to provide a higher quality of light. While these advancements afford a significant improvement over previous offerings, phosphor technologies have yet to deliver desirable white light with rich color rendering ability along with the energy efficiency typically attributed to LEDs.

Sunday, August 28, 2016

Infrared LED revenue growing faster than overall IR components

Increased adoption of biometrics security in mobile phones, close-circuit television and other consumer applications spurred revenue growth in the global market for infrared LEDs from $201.5m in 2014 to $241.4m in 2015, according to Jamie Fox, principal analyst, LEDs and Lighting, at IHS Markit. While infrared LEDs grew 19.8% year-on-year in 2015, the overall infrared components market fell by 9%. Osram, Everlight and Vishay were the leading suppliers. 

Common infrared LED that emits infrared rays has the same appearance with visible light LED. Its appropriate operating voltage is around 1.4v and the current is generally smaller than 20mA. Current limiting resistances are usually connected in series in the infrared LED circuits to adjust the voltages, helping the LEDs to be adapted to different operating voltages. 

An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength. Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminium gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors.

The appearance is same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED. To overcome this problem, the camera on a cellphone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Measurement basics in LED thermal management

A successful LED design needs a balance of form and function to be a desirable luminaire with the right lumen output. Sounds simple enough, but these two requirements are often in conflict. When form trumps function, LEDs that are usually mounted onto a metal-clad PCB (MCPCB) as a module are all too often crammed together, creating a module with high-power density. If the device has not been designed to remove the heat from the LEDs effectively, there is a real risk of the LED overheating. As with any semiconductor, when LEDs overheat efficiency is reduced, light quality deteriorates, lifespan shortens and ultimately the LED can catastrophically fail.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Indian Bulb Maker Eveready Acquires Large Order from EESL

Indian LED manufacturer Eveready Industries acquired a large order of 1.3 million LED tube lights from the state-owned power company Energy Efficiency Services Ltd. (EESL), reported Business Standard.
The EESL order values an estimated INR 179.4 million (US $2.67 million).
“The company has obtained a letter of award from Energy Efficiency Services Ltd for design and supply of 20W external batten LED tube light on pan India basis,” stated Eveready in a press release.
EESL is a joint venture formed by Indian power companies NTPC Limited, PFC, REC, and Power Grid Corporation to implement energy efficiency projects, and also works as an energy services company. The organization is responsible for implementing India’s Domestic Efficient Lighting Program (DELP).
Everready is one of the leading manufacturers of batteries and flashlights, and sells more than 1.2 billion batteries and nearly 25 million flashlights. The company also makes LEDs, CFLs, and GLS lamps and other lighting products, small home appliances and tea.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Fujian achieves breakthrough in LED technology

Fujian province has seen the technological breakthrough of LED technologies for transparentfluorescent ceramic material that allows dense LED lights to concentrate on a small surface. The technology has been co-developed by Research on the Structure of Matter (FJIRSM) andFujian Zhongke Xinyuan Optoelectronics Technology Co Ltd. “With previous technologies, Chinese LED manufacturers were not able to produce largepower LED,” said Hong Moachun, academician at FJIRSM, “because when the light runs formore than 200 watts, the LED lights will produce too much heat on a small surface that coulddamage the light. Therefore, these LED lights are used only for ordinary lighting. ”

Nanocrystals speed up Wi-Fi-emitting LEDs

Communication technologies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi operate on invisible radio waves, but transmitting data on wavelengths we can see might turn out to be more efficient and secure. Researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) have developed a nanocrystal that helps boost data speeds transmitted through a visible light LED up to 2 Gbps – while pleasantly lighting the room.

Communication technologies such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth operate on invisible radio waves, but it turns out, transmitting data on visible wavelengths may be more efficient and secure. A team of researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia developed a nanocrystal that helps boost data speeds transmitted through a visible light LED up to 2 Gbps while also lighting up the room.
Because just a fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum can be seen by the human eye, making use of those wavelengths could mean faster, safer wireless data systems. With so many wireless signals zipping around, certain frequencies can become clogged, and radio waves can interfere with sensitive equipment, such as those used for navigation or in hospitals. Visible-light communication (VLC) systems can help bypass these issues.
Currently VLC devices are based on LEDs, which use phosphorus to turn some of the blue light emitted by a diode into green and red. When combined, the colors form white light to comfortably light a room while also providing a wireless signal. But as you’re likely aware, this technique comes with limits.
VLC using white light generated in this way is limited to about one hundred million bits per second,” said KAUST Professor of Electrical Engineering, Boon Ooi. However, a University of Virginia study reached 300 Mbps, and Siemens managed 500 Mbps. Pennsylvania State University has even hit 1.6 Gbps using invisible infrared light.
As for the researchers at KAUST, they’ve achieved 2 Gbps using visible light, converting the colored light into white using nanocrystals instead of phosphorus. At 8 nm long, the crystals are made of cesium lead bromide, and when hit by a blue laser, emit green light. An incorporated nitride phosphor emits red light, and the three colors combine to form the white, room-illuminating light that's comparable to that of existing LEDs.
In nanocrystals, the optical processes operate on a time-scale of about seven nanoseconds, meaning the optical emission of the light operates at a frequency of 491 MHz. This allows the data to be transmitted at 2 Gbps. Data is transferred through a series of flashes, undetected by the human eye, but clear to a receiving sensor.
The research was originally published in the journal ACS Photonics.