Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Glossary of Typical Lighting Terms

AMPERE : The standard unit of measurement for electric current that is equal to one coulomb per second. It defines the quantity of electrons moving past a given point in a circuit during a specific period. Amp is an abbreviation.

ANSI: Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.

ARC TUBE: A tube enclosed by the outer glass envelope of a HID lamp and made of clear quartz or ceramic that contains the arc stream.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

BAFFLE: A single opaque or translucent element used to control light distribution at certain angles.

BALLAST: A device used to operate fluorescent and HID lamps. The ballast provides the necessary starting voltage, while limiting and regulating the lamp current during operation.

BALLAST CYCLING: Undesirable condition under which the ballast turns lamps on and off (cycles) due to the overheating of the thermal switch inside the ballast. This may be due to incorrect lamps, improper voltage being supplied, high ambient temperature around the fixture, or the early stage of ballast failure.

BALLAST EFFICIENCY FACTOR: The ballast efficiency factor (BEF) is the ballast factor (see below) divided by the input power of the ballast. The higher the BEF ( within the same lamp-ballast type ( the more efficient the ballast.

BALLAST FACTOR: The ballast factor (BF) for a specific lamp-ballast combination represents the percentage of the rated lamp lumens that will be produced by the combination.

CANDELA: Unit of luminous intensity, describing the intensity of a light source in a specific direction.

CANDELA DISTRIBUTION: A curve, often on polar coordinates, illustrating the variation of luminous intensity of a lamp or luminaire in a plane through the light center.

CANDLEPOWER: A measure of luminous intensity of a light source in a specific direction, measured in candelas (see above).

CBM: Abbreviation for Certified Ballast Manufacturers Association.

CEC: Abbreviation for California Energy Commission.

COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION: The ratio of lumens from a luminaire received on the work plane to the lumens produced by the lamps alone. (Also called "CU")

COLOR RENDERING INDEX (CRI): A scale of the effect of a light source on the color appearance of an object compared to its color appearance under a reference light source. Expressed on a scale of 1 to 100, where 100 indicates no color shift. A low CRI rating suggests that the colors of objects will appear unnatural under that particular light source.

COLOR TEMPERATURE: The color temperature is a specification of the color appearance of a light source, relating the color to a reference source heated to a particular temperature, measured by the thermal unit Kelvin. The measurement can also be described as the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light source. Generally, sources below 3200K are considered "warm;" while those above 4000K are considered "cool" sources.

COMPACT FLUORESCENT: A small fluorescent lamp that is often used as an alternative to incandescent lighting. The lamp life is about 10 times longer than incandescent lamps and is 3-4 times more efficacious. Also called PL, Twin-Tube, CFL, or BIAX lamps.

CONSTANT WATTAGE (CW) BALLAST: A premium type of HID ballast in which the primary and secondary coils are isolated. It is considered a high performance, high loss ballast featuring excellent output regulation.

CONSTANTWATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER (CWA) BALLAST: A popular type of HID ballast in which the primary and secondary coils are electrically connected. Considered an appropriate balance between cost and performance.

CONTRAST: The relationship between the luminance of an object and its background.


CUT-OFF ANGLE: The angle from a fixture's vertical axis at which a reflector, louver, or other shielding device cuts off direct visibility of a lamp. It is the complementary angle of the shielding angle.

DAYLIGHT COMPENSATION: A dimming system controlled by a photocell that reduces the output of the lamps when daylight is present. As daylight levels increase, lamp intensity decreases. An energy-saving technique used in areas with significant daylight contribution.

DIFFUSE: Term describing dispersed light distribution. Refers to the scattering or softening of light.

DIFFUSER: A translucent piece of glass or plastic sheet that shields the light source in a fixture. The light transmitted throughout the diffuser will be redirected and scattered.

DIRECT GLARE: Glare produced by a direct view of light sources. Often the result of insufficiently shielded light sources. (See GLARE)

DOWNLIGHT: A type of ceiling luminaire, usually fully recessed, where most of the light is directed downward. May feature an open reflector and/or shielding device.

EFFICACY: A metric used to compare light output to energy consumption. Efficacy is measured in lumens per watt. Efficacy is similar to efficiency, but is expressed in dissimilar units. For example, if a 100-watt source produces 9000 lumens, then the efficacy is 90 lumens per watt.

ELECTROLUMINESCENT: A light source technology used in exit signs that provides uniform brightness, long lamp life (approximately eight years), while consuming very little energy (less than one watt per lamp).

ELECTRONIC BALLAST: A ballast that uses semi-conductor components to increase the frequency of fluorescent lamp operation ( typically in the 20-40 kHz range. Smaller inductive components provide the lamp current control. Fluorescent system efficiency is increased due to high frequency lamp operation.

ELECTRONIC DIMMING BALLAST: A variable output electronic fluorescent ballast.

EMI: Abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. High frequency interference (electrical noise) caused by electronic components or fluorescent lamps that interferes with the operation of electrical equipment. EMI is measured in micro-volts, and can be controlled by filters. Because EMI can interfere with communication devices, the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has established limits for EMI.

ENERGY-SAVING BALLAST: A type of magnetic ballast designed so that the components operate more efficiently, cooler and longer than a "standard magnetic" ballast. By US law, standard magnetic ballasts can no longer be manufactured.

ENERGY-SAVING LAMP: A lower wattage lamp, generally producing fewer lumens.


FLUORESCENT LAMP: A light source consisting of a tube filled with argon, along with krypton or other inert gas. When electrical current is applied, the resulting arc emits ultraviolet radiation that excites the phosphors inside the lamp wall, causing them to radiate visible light.

FOOTCANDLE (FC): The English unit of measurement of the illuminance (or light level) on a surface. One footcandle is equal to one lumen per square foot.

FOOTLAMBERT: English unit of luminance. One footlambert is equal to 1/p candelas per square foot.

GLARE: The effect of brightness or differences in brightness within the visual field sufficiently high to cause annoyance, discomfort or loss of visual performance.


HARMONIC DISTORTION: A harmonic is a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental frequency. Harmonic distortion from lighting equipment can interfere with other appliances and the operation of electric power networks. The total harmonic distortion (THD) is usually expressed as a percentage of the fundamental line current. THD for 4-foot fluorescent ballasts usually range from 20% to 40%. For compact fluorescent ballasts, THD levels greater than 50% are not uncommon.

HID: Abbreviation for high intensity discharge. Generic term describing mercury vapor, metal halide, high pressure sodium, and (informally) low pressure sodium light sources and luminaires.

HIGH-BAY: Pertains to the type of lighting in an industrial application where the ceiling is 20 feet or higher. Also describes the application itself.

HIGH OUTPUT (HO): A lamp or ballast designed to operate at higher currents (800 mA) and produce more light.

HIGH POWER FACTOR: A ballast with a 0.9 or higher rated power factor, which is achieved by using a capacitor.

HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMP: A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp whose light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor (and mercury).

HOT RESTART or HOT RESTRIKE: The phenomenon of re-striking the arc in an HID light source after a momentary power loss. Hot restart occurs when the arc tube has cooled a sufficient amount.

IESNA: Abbreviation for Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

ILLUMINANCE: A photometric term that quantifies light incident on a surface or plane. Illuminance is commonly called light level. It is expressed as lumens per square foot (footcandles), or lumens per square meter (lux).

INDIRECT GLARE: Glare produced from a reflective surface.

INSTANT START: A fluorescent circuit that ignites the lamp instantly with a very high starting voltage from the ballast. Instant start lamps have single-pin bases.

LAMP CURRENT CREST FACTOR (LCCF): The peak lamp current divided by the RMS (average) lamp current. Lamp manufacturers require <1.7 for best lamp life. An LCCF of 1.414 is a perfect sine wave.

LAMP LUMEN DEPRECIATION FACTOR (LLD): A factor that represents the reduction of lumen output over time. The factor is commonly used as a multiplier to the initial lumen rating in illuminance calculations, which compensates for the lumen depreciation. The LLD factor is a dimensionless value between 0 and 1.

LAY-IN-TROFFER: A fluorescent fixture; usually a 2' x 4' fixture that sets or "lays" into a specific ceiling grid.

LED: Abbreviation for light emitting diode. An illumination technology used for exit signs. Consumes low wattage and has a rated life of greater than 80 years.

LENS: Transparent or translucent medium that alters the directional characteristics of light passing through it. Usually made of glass or acrylic.

LIGHT LOSS FACTOR (LLF): Factors that allow for a lighting system's operation at less than initial conditions. These factors are used to calculate maintained light levels. LLFs are divided into two categories, recoverable and non-recoverable. Examples are lamp lumen depreciation and luminaire surface depreciation.

LIFE-CYCLE COST: The total costs associated with purchasing, operating, and maintaining a system over the life of that system.

LOUVER: Grid type of optical assembly used to control light distribution from a fixture. Can range from small-cell plastic to the large-cell anodized aluminum louvers used in parabolic fluorescent fixtures.

LOW POWER FACTOR: Essentially, an uncorrected ballast power factor of less than 0.9 (SEE NPF)

LOW-PRESSURE SODIUM: A low-pressure discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor. Considered a monochromatic light source (most colors are rendered as gray).

LOW-VOLTAGE LAMP: A lamp ( typically compact halogen ( that provides both intensity and good color rendition. Lamp operates at 12V and requires the use of a transformer. Popular lamps are MR11, MR16, and PAR36.

LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCH: A relay (magnetically-operated switch) that allows local and remote control of lights, including centralized time clock or computer control.

LUMEN: A unit of light flow, or luminous flux. The lumen rating of a lamp is a measure of the total light output of the lamp.

LUMINAIRE: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps, along with the parts designed to distribute the light, hold the lamps, and connect the lamps to a power source. Also called a fixture.

LUMINAIRE EFFICIENCY: The ratio of total lumen output of a luminaire and the lumen output of the lamps, expressed as a percentage. For example, if two luminaires use the same lamps, more light will be emitted from the fixture with the higher efficiency.

LUMINANCE: A photometric term that quantifies brightness of a light source or of an illuminated surface that reflects light. It is expressed as footlamberts (English units) or candelas per square meter (Metric units).

LUX (LX): The metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. One lux equals 0.093 footcandles.

MAINTAINED ILLUMINANCE: Refers to light levels of a space at other than initial or rated conditions. This terms considers light loss factors such as lamp lumen depreciation, luminaire dirt depreciation, and room surface dirt depreciation.

MERCURY VAPOR LAMP: A type of high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which most of the light is produced by radiation from mercury vapor. Emits a blue-green cast of light. Available in clear and phosphor-coated lamps.

METAL HALIDE: A type of high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which most of the light is produced by radiation of metal halide and mercury vapors in the arc tube. Available in clear and phosphor-coated lamps.

MR-16: A low-voltage quartz reflector lamp, only 2" in diameter. Typically the lamp and reflector are one unit, which directs a sharp, precise beam of light.

NADIR: A reference direction directly below a luminaire, or "straight down" (0 degree angle).

NEMA: Abbreviation for National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

NIST: Abbreviation for National Institute of Standards and Technology.

NPF (NORMAL POWER FACTOR): A ballast/lamp combination in which no components (e.g., capacitors) have been added to correct the power factor, making it normal (essentially low, typically 0.5 or 50%).

OCCUPANCY SENSOR: Control device that turns lights off after the space becomes unoccupied. May be ultrasonic, infrared or other type.

OPTICS: A term referring to the components of a light fixture (such as reflectors, refractors, lenses, louvers) or to the light emitting or light-controlling performance of a fixture.

PAR LAMP: A parabolic aluminized reflector lamp. An incandescent, metal halide, or compact fluorescent lamp used to redirect light from the source using a parabolic reflector. Lamps are available with flood or spot distributions.

PAR 36: A PAR lamp that is 36 one-eighths of an inch in diameter with a parabolic shaped reflector (SEE PAR LAMP).

PARABOLIC LUMINAIRE: A popular type of fluorescent fixture that has a louver composed of aluminum baffles curved in a parabolic shape. The resultant light distribution produced by this shape provides reduced glare, better light control, and is considered to have greater aesthetic appeal.

PARACUBE: A metallic coated plastic louver made up of small squares. Often used to replace the lens in an installed troffer to enhance its appearance. The paracube is visually comfortable, but the luminaire efficiency is lowered. Also used in rooms with computer screens because of their glare-reducing qualities.

PHOTOCELL: A light sensing device used to control luminaires and dimmers in response to detected light levels.

PHOTOMETRIC REPORT: A photometric report is a set of printed data describing the light distribution, efficiency, and zonal lumen output of a luminaire. This report is generated from laboratory testing.

POWER FACTOR: The ratio of AC volts x amps through a device to AC wattage of the device. A device such as a ballast that measures 120 volts, 1 amp, and 60 watts has a power factor of 50% (volts x amps = 120 VA, therefore 60 watts/120 VA = 0.5). Some utilities charge customers for low power factor systems.

PREHEAT: A type of ballast/lamp circuit that uses a separate starter to heat up a fluorescent lamp before high voltage is applied to start the lamp.

QUAD-TUBE LAMP: A compact fluorescent lamp with a double twin tube configuration.

RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI): Interference to the radio frequency band caused by other high frequency equipment or devices in the immediate area. Fluorescent lighting systems generate RFI.

RAPID START (RS): The most popular fluorescent lamp/ballast combination used today. This ballast quickly and efficiently preheats lamp cathodes to start the lamp. Uses a "bi-pin" base.

ROOM CAVITY RATIO (RCR): A ratio of room dimensions used to quantify how light will interact with room surfaces. A factor used in illuminance calculations.

REFLECTANCE: The ratio of light reflected from a surface to the light incident on the surface. Reflectances are often used for lighting calculations. The reflectance of a dark carpet is around 20%, and a clean white wall is roughly 50% to 60%.

REFLECTOR: The part of a light fixture that shrouds the lamps and redirects some light emitted from the lamp.

REFRACTOR: A device used to redirect the light output from a source, primarily by bending the waves of light.

RECESSED: The term used to describe the doorframe of a troffer where the lens or louver lies above the surface of the ceiling.

REGULATION: The ability of a ballast to hold constant (or nearly constant) the output watts (light output) during fluctuations in the voltage feeding of the ballast. Normally specified as +/- percent change in output compared to +/- percent change in input.

RELAY: A device that switches an electrical load on or off based on small changes in current or voltage. Examples: low voltage relay and solid state relay.

RETROFIT: Refers to upgrading a fixture, room, or building by installing new parts or equipment.

SELF-LUMINOUS EXIT SIGN: An illumination technology using phosphor-coated glass tubes filled with radioactive tritium gas. The exit sign uses no electricity and thus does not need to be hardwired.

SEMI-SPECULAR: Term describing the light reflection characteristics of a material. Some light is reflected directionally, with some amount of scatter.

SHIELDING ANGLE: The angle measured from the ceiling plane to the line of sight where the bare lamp in a luminaire becomes visible. Higher shielding angles reduce direct glare. It is the complementary angle of the cutoff angle. (See CUTOFF ANGLE).

SPACING CRITERION: A maximum distance that interior fixtures may be spaced that ensures uniform illumination on the work plane. The luminaire height above the work plane multiplied by the spacing criterion equals the center-to-center luminaire spacing.

SPECULAR: Mirrored or polished surface. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. This word describes the finish of the material used in some louvers and reflectors.

STARTER: A device used with a ballast to start preheat fluorescent lamps.

STROBOSCOPIC EFFECT: Condition where rotating machinery or other rapidly moving objects appear to be standing still due to the alternating current supplied to light sources. Sometimes called "strobe effect."

T12 LAMP: Industry standard for a fluorescent lamp that is 12 one-eighths (1 inches) in diameter. Other sizes are T10 (1 inches) and T8 (1 inch) lamps.

TANDEM WIRING: A wiring option in which a ballasts is shared by two or more luminaires. This reduces labor, materials, and energy costs. Also called "master-slave" wiring.

THERMAL FACTOR: A factor used in lighting calculations that compensates for the change in light output of a fluorescent lamp due to a change in bulb wall temperature. It is applied when the lamp-ballast combination under consideration is different from that used in the photometric tests.

TRIGGER START: Type of ballast commonly used with 15-watt and 20-watt straight fluorescent lamps.

TROFFER: The term used to refer to a recessed fluorescent light fixture (combination of trough and coffer).

TUNGSTEN HALOGEN LAMP: A gas-filled tungsten filament incandescent lamp with a lamp envelope made of quartz to withstand the high temperature. This lamp contains some halogens (namely iodine, chlorine, bromine, and fluorine), which slow the evaporation of the tungsten. Also, commonly called a quartz lamp.


ULTRA VIOLET (UV): Invisible radiation that is shorter in wavelength and higher in frequency than visible violet light (literally beyond the violet light).

UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES (UL): An independent organization whose responsibilities include rigorous testing of electrical products. When products pass these tests, they can be labeled (and advertised) as "UL listed." UL tests for product safety only.

VANDAL-RESISTANT: Fixtures with rugged housings, break-resistant type shielding, and tamper-proof screws.

VCP: Abbreviation for visual comfort probability. A rating system for evaluating direct discomfort glare. This method is a subjective evaluation of visual comfort expressed as the percent of occupants of a space who will be bothered by direct glare. VCP allows for several factors: luminaire luminances at different angles of view, luminaire size, room size, luminaire mounting height, illuminance, and room surface reflectivity. VCP tables are often provided as part of photometric reports.

VERY HIGH OUTPUT (VHO): A fluorescent lamp that operates at a "very high" current (1500 mA), producing more light output than a "high output" lamp (800 mA) or standard output lamp (430 mA).

VOLT: The standard unit of measurement for electrical potential. It defines the "force" or "pressure" of electricity.

VOLTAGE: The difference in electrical potential between two points of an electrical circuit.

WALLWASHER: Describes luminaires that illuminate vertical surfaces.

WATT (W): The unit for measuring electrical power. It defines the rate of energy consumption by an electrical device when it is in operation. The energy cost of operating an electrical device is calculated as its wattage times the hours of use. In single phase circuits, it is related to volts and amps by the formula: Volts x Amps x PF = Watts. (Note: For AC circuits, PF must be included.)

WORK PLANE: The level at which work is done and at which illuminance is specified and measured. For office applications, this is typically a horizontal plane 30 inches above the floor (desk height).

ZENITH: The direction directly above the luminaire (180 angle).

Luminous Efficacy and Color Quality Advances in LED Systems

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a viable alternative to incumbent and emerging lighting technologies in many application areas, including outdoor and general lighting solutions. To lead against other technologies, LEDs must improve to out-compete the alternatives in terms of luminous efficacy and color quality.

Luminous efficacy and proper color rendition is a function of the LED, the thermal management and driver and power-supply efficiency of the luminaire. As a result, lighting solution designers need to consider the complete system.

Luminous efficacy of a source

Luminous efficacy is a measure of how efficiently a light source produces visible light – or the ratio of luminous flux to power. Depending on context, the power can be either the radiant flux of the source's output, or it can be the total electric power consumed by the source. Most often, luminous efficacy of a source is measured in terms of lumens per watt (lm/W), which is increasingly used by standards bodies and regulatory agencies.

For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set hard goals for LED luminous efficacy, seeking to have cost-effective, market-ready warm white LEDs producing 160 lm/W by 2025.

While there is every indication that these goals are achievable — for example Cree's XLamp XM-L LEDs are one of the most efficient on the market right now — LEDs are only one part of LED-based solutions.

Luminous efficacy of the system

Luminaire efficacy should take into consideration the LED's luminous efficacy of a source in light of the relative efficiency of other system components.

For example, "LEDs also require supplementary electronics, usually called drivers," wrote the DOE on its solid-state lighting website. "The driver converts line power to the appropriate voltage (typically between 2 and 4 Vdc for high-brightness LEDs) and current (generally 200 to 1,000 mA), and may also include dimming and/or color-correction controls.

"Currently available LED drivers are typically about 85 percent efficient. So LED efficacy should be discounted by 15 percent to account for the driver." Other system components, including the power supply or the fixture’s overall thermal profile, also will have an effect on the total luminaire efficacy.

At the moment, LEDs are surpassing compact fluorescent lighting in terms of luminaire efficacy. Of course, efficacy by itself is not enough to a make a good and competitive lighting solution. Low-pressure sodium lamps, for example, can outperform LEDs and most other light sources in terms of luminous efficacy, but they have a nearly monochromatic light that poorly renders colors.

Color rendering

For most lighting applications, the light source must accurately reproduce the colors of the objects it illuminates. An example might be down lighting in a kitchen, where one would not want the luminaire to make naturally bright fruit or vegetables seem dull or, perhaps, even spoiled.

Recently, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, which is part of the Department of Commerce, proposed the Color Quality Scale. This qualitative measurement seeks to improve upon the aging Color Rendering Index (CRI) for comparing the color-rendering capabilities of fluorescent lights, which was introduced more than 40 years ago by the International Commission on Illumination.

However, whether using the newer Color Quality Scale or the CRI, color rendering should be a significant consideration in lighting solution design.

How to Install LED Tube Lights?

LED (Light Emitting Diode) tube lights are soon advancing to become the forefront of traditional lighting, that consist of fluorescent tube lights & CFLs (Compact Fluorescent Lamps). LED tube lights have a low luminous intensity, therefore they offer better distribution of light as compared to other sources of light & the intensity of glare is reduced to a greater extent. They are energy efficient & more long lasting than other traditional sources of light, hence it makes sense to save in frugal electricity bills & replacement costs. LED lighting works on the lines of green expertise, that is they generate less carbon emissions & do not contain poisonous mercury or any dangerous elements. Moreover, you don't must worry about getting the whole wiring process changed; a few simple modifications in the existing fixtures will serve the purpose. So, the next time you happen to alter your existing tube light, make definite you think about installing LED tube lights. & in the event you have already decided to put in them, here are a few tips on how to put in LED tube lights perfectly.

Installing LED Tube Lights

When you start with installing LED tube lights than fluorescent tube lights, you will recognize there's main components; the ballast, the starter & the tube light that you need to get rid of. Now, the starter may not be a separate part in the whole circuit & is sometimes built in the ballast itself.
Remove the elderly bulbs from the fixtures & be definite the electricity or the mains to the whole fixture is turned off while doing so. You may need simple tools like screw drivers, wires, wire stripper & cutter, some nuts & bolts; keep all of them handy.
One time the elderly bulbs or tube lights are taken off you will must remove the reflector that encloses the wiring & the ballast as well. Usually, it is simple to detach the reflector, you may use the screw driver to remove this, in case it is fixed using screws otherwise you can use a wire stripper to pull out the reflector.
Now, you need to get rid of the ballast & starter (if present). The ballast will have screws holding it, unscrew them using a screw driver & dispose it off. While doing so, the wiring attached to it would even be removed. Reconnect the wires in the fixture so as to complete the circuit.
You are there! Fix the reflector back in its place covering the wiring work & insert the LED tube lights in the sockets. Now, while inserting the LED tube lights you ought to be definite of the top & bottom ends, & must be fixed in to the circuit likewise. In case you are unable to identify the top & bottom refer to the instructions manual provided by the manufacturer.
One time you are completed with installing the LED tube light in the fixture, turn on the mains or electricity. If all the connections are proper & the fittings are completed in the correct manner, you will have a better illumination. Your project does not finish here, it is important that you dispose off the elderly fluorescent bulbs or tube lights properly according to the local regulations. Since, these bulbs contain small amounts of poisonous mercury, that are highly hazardous.
A few modifications to the existing fixture can make the installation of LED tube lights simple & more convenient than before. LED tube lights are definite to last longer & save much electricity as compared to the traditional lighting process. And they are environmental friendly & contain no poisonous mercury or the use of ballast.

LED tube lights bring an array of lighting effects and can be readily installed without having you modify the existing tube light fixture, thus helping you modify the ambiance of any room the simpler way. They will soon see them replace the existing compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) all over.

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Why LED light bulbs cost so much and how that’s about to change

Like it or not, energy-saver light bulbs are about to become the next big thing.

Starting next year, lighting manufacturers will begin a government-sanctioned phase out of incandescent bulbs that don’t meet new efficiency standards. So far, the transition is looking like it’ll be anything but smooth. Some conservatives are already seeking to repeal the law, arguing that it infringes upon consumer choice. But what’s most troubling is the fact that the alternatives haven’t quite caught on.

For instance, compact florescent light bulbs (CFL) account for a mere 5 percent of all bulb sales. Despite being widely available and technological improvements that have enabled the technology to closely mimic the tones and soft glow of incandescents, there’s still environmental and health concerns over the amount of mercury circulated inside the spiral tubes.

The other alternative that’s emerged over the last few years is one the industry has long been high on. Light emitting diodes (LED) are not only more efficient than CFLs, but they also last much longer, sometimes a decade or more. But the high upfront costs means that it’s only during that stretch that the true cost savings start to come into light. Not a bad deal, though try telling that to consumers who suddenly have to shell out 30 bucks or more for a light bulb when they’re used to paying less than a dollar.

Related: World’s cheapest light bulb

So why are they so pricey? And are they going to get noticeably cheaper anytime soon? Fast Company magazine recently dissected the technology behind LED bulbs and revealed why the manufacturing process is such a costly one.

What they discovered through an analysis of the materials, labor and parts was that turning an LED into a light bulb requires the integration of some pretty sophisticated technologies. Here’s a quick breakdown:

Components on the circuit board is often assembled by hand because its still too complicated for factory machines.
The actual LED wafer can cost as much as $8 a unit.
The brightest LEDs generate blue light. So in order to get the more natural white glow, manufacturers typically coat the bulb with yellow phosphor, an expensive rare earth metal compound imported from China.
LEDs additionally require the use of drivers to convert energy into electrical current. This component alone can cost up to $4.
Although LEDs burn cooler than Edison bulbs, they still need a conducting material to dissipate the heat. The aluminum used to accomplish this can cost as much as $3.

The article also mentioned some newer technologies that bulb-makers are hope will help bring down the cost in due time, some of which include:

Using larger wafers that would allow LEDs to be built.
The production of green LEDs that when mixed with red and blue ones create white light.
Smaller heat sinks that require less aluminum.

Friday, September 2, 2011

LED lights and started the outbreak of the main lighting market opportunities

EU and other countries are announced the installation of a new car daytime running lights, and the complete ban, the cut-off incandescent Act, together with the safety certification standards are ready, LED lights up and the main lighting needs. Market opportunities for the catching, LED components, LED driver IC and system manufacturers have resorted to a complete program to step up to eating this great opportunity.

EU norms in all vehicles by 2012 new cars be fitted with dedicated daytime running lights (DRL), to ensure safer driving. In addition, including the European Union, the United Kingdom, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United States, Argentina and other countries has been officially announced, no later than 2014 will completely ban the incandescent lamp with a cut-off. In the national policy to promote, the light-emitting diode (LED) daytime running lamps and lighting applications is becoming the main light source and the following street lighting market, LED manufacturers full layout of the business focus.

National policy to accelerate LED lights / lighting universal primary

To make driving safer, the EU took the lead on September 24, 2008 notice requirement since the beginning of February 2011, all cars and small trucks with new models equipped with daytime running lights are required; and other goods vehicles, buses since 2012. from August 7 to be equipped with daytime running lights. In addition to the EU, other countries are starting to regulate all types of vehicles started the car to be fitted with daytime running lights, now nearly the only Canadian regulations allow light to replace daytime running lights.

Experts point out that, due to daytime running lights must be in the vehicles to maintain the brightness, the traditional DRL power consumption for the headlights for 25 to 30%, so with low power consumption and long life advantages of LED light source to be a vendor research and development trend, the use of LED daytime running lights headlights to be only 10% of electricity consumption. Consider traffic safety and energy demand trends, the development of LED daytime running lights will be imperative, a LED lamp manufacturers to expand new market opportunities.

Today, car manufacturers Audi (Audi) promote LED daytime running lights of the most active, its A8, R8 and A4 series have switched with LED daytime running lights, A8 Philips (Philips) Lumileds of LuxeonEmittor as daytime running light source; R8 and A4 are selected Osram Opto Semiconductors (OsramOptoSemiconductor)) of AdvancedPowerTopLED and GoldenDRAGONLED; even expected in 2010′s third-generation A8 will the full import of LED daytime running lights. In addition, many car manufacturers have been the first half of this year’s new models are also equipped with LED daytime running lights, such as the Mercedes-Benz (Benz) and so on.

In fact, in addition to daytime running lights outside, LED has been widely used in interior lighting, including the instrument panel, backlit buttons, sunroof, head-up display and so on. Osram Opto Semiconductors, said the car on-demand color selection (ColoronDemand) feature allows car manufacturers to use the company’s unique identifying color, creativity and diversity of competitors, or in different series using different colors to be distinguished.

In addition, LED lights for use outside the proportion has continued to rise, such as the 2008 Cadillac (Cadilac) Escalade First, the use of LED headlamps. Philips Lumileds said that the listing of Lexus (Lexus) LS600h and the Audi R8 have been mounted LED headlights, which use the Lexus that is Philips Lumileds and Nichia (Nichia) high power LED. As for the third LED brake light, taillights, turn signals, side lights, dipped beam and high beam and so demand is also growing. LED is also frequently used in the car section of the taillights, in addition to considering the small size, temperature stability and long life characteristics, another advantage for the fast response, the driver can depress the brake plate moment on. For example, Nissan (Nissan) Tiana after the lights and Chrysler (Chrysler) third brake lights, turn signals and lamps have switched after the use of LED light sources.

Even LED brake lights, turn signals and other signals technologies has matured, but the LED headlights, front fog lamps and other lighting types not yet universal, and then benefit from the national DRL Act enacted, LED daytime running lights has become a hot lamp applications .

On the other hand, in order to comply with energy saving trend, countries from 2009 onwards to stop production, to ban incandescent bulbs, especially the EU countries will start in September this year, prohibit the sale of 100-watt conventional light bulb, 2012, a total ban all traditional light bulbs, for the earliest implementation of the area.

According to market LEDinside forecasts, as governments have been released to ban incandescent schedule, the overall global effect of lighting products will be updated gradually from 2010 to 2012 the fermentation, to 2012, LED lighting compound annual growth rate of 33%. The progressive upgrading of the LED luminous efficiency and lower costs, the future of LED lighting will be cut into the interior lighting.

In energy policy, fueled by governments, is bound to drive LED daytime running lights and the main lighting market demand for the early to ensure product performance, reliability and security, the European Union, the North American government agencies with the responsibility to verify the safety, has been for the lights and the main set lighting set standards and safety-related certification.

Standards / Safety verify the development of intense LED lights / bright primary lighting business

European Union for the LED daytime running lights and headlights were worked out ECER112, ECER87 norms, experts said, LED lights and verify the different traditional lights, LED light source lit illumination will gradually increase, as stable, the EU provides LED light source required to achieve the most minute light illumination requirements, and in light stable period of 30 minutes after the illumination, that in the light and 1 minute after 30 minutes, the brightness values ​​to different types of lights on the lower limit of the , such as the daytime running lights, the lower limit of the individual to 1,200 cd and 400cd; According to the EU LED turn signals regulate ECER6 provides upper and lower limit is 1,000 cd and 175cd; The LED position lights ECER7, the lower limit was 17cd, 4cd. In addition, he added said, using gradually increasing the proportion of LED headlights and taillights, brake lights no longer light up the same, so does not require a long period of steady illumination, the lights validation exception.
Moreover, the concern is, by all UK insurance companies jointly called for Thatcham Union, accompanied by German Rhine requirements established for claims of non-mandatory EMC verification services, mainly to adapt its LED lights the need for additional battery-loop system for to protect the safety of the driver in the car, thus requiring the vehicle to carry out electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) verification, to confirm the vehicle’s electrical system are up to any officially sanctioned the EMC specifications. Any vehicle within the new electronic products must be verified through EMC, the market for after-loading (AM) with greater impact, the Alliance and look forward to expanding this service to Europe. In addition, Thatcham verify that the project will also include after-loading the product meets the original product’s specifications, including functional and assembly of.

Representation of the current major customers for the Osram lamp, Philips, Valeo, Narva, etc., but the poor status of the automobile market to verify the order also followed shrink, as domestic demand is not received verification lights, but with the LED lights are more popular, the domestic automobile manufacturers to use LED lights will greatly enhance the proportion of the existing more than half the proportion of vehicles equipped with LED brake lights, turn signals, etc., so the domestic automobile manufacturers demand more verification LED lights.

The main lighting and LED lights verify the project very different, most of the time, lights and a lower chance of human contact, so no need electrical safety requirements; the other hand, LED lighting is the main there is a demand. In addition, LED lights only need to verify the system; rules, however, verify the LED lighting project covers Ming LED components and systems.

Different LED lighting different safety requirements, in addition to lighting equipment for the European and American safety standards are not the same, the main difference is that the voltage (230 volts in Europe, North America, 120 volts), the standards for safety and for different structural differences .

LED lighting project for the main electrical safety verification testing, optical properties, EMC safety testing and the EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) / Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive compliance testing. Li Zhiming proposed validation prices vary in different lighting, to effectively reduce the validation costs, manufacturers have to find the components meet the safety conditions.

Compared to the German Rhine, the North American market, LED lighting is more active Ming regulation verify the UL, in addition to LED lighting, but also specifically for LED components to develop draft safety verification ULSubject8750. ULSubject8750 for LED components include verification of safety light module, control circuit and power supply.

UL said that as traditional lamps Certification previously not taken into account characteristics of LED components, so ULSubject8750 reinforcement system used in conventional LED lighting systems the lack of safety standards, and applies to all LED lighting safety verification.

The LED lights verify program covers safety abnormal test, electrical specifications and mechanical strength, so in addition to the basic test of all lamps, such as temperature, abnormal test and insulation properties, consider the LED is the semiconductor components, with quite different characteristics of the traditional disparity between the light source Therefore the Special Programme abnormal test items, and mechanical strength, mainly for the structure of the review and confirmation switch, power cord specifications meet lighting requirements, and related electrical spacing is caused by short circuit, to avoid short circuit, open circuit or back to the passing load conditions.

However, while in government policy and verification under escort, LED lights and the main lighting after strong potential, but compared with backlight and street lighting, automotive lighting applications with the main design requirements are more stringent, especially for headlights and interior when the main light source, LED heat, light-emitting efficiency and reliability are facing great challenges. Therefore, the two major potential inroads into this market, LED manufacturers have been gradually developed a higher luminous efficiency of LED with new cooling, packaging technology, to accelerate the market forming.

Friday, July 29, 2011

Easiest way to make Led Circuit !!!

Simple LED circuits are not so hard to build. An LED (Light Emitting Diode), is a very low current light source that is safe and durable for use in your project. This article will show you how to make a very simple LED circuit.
The LEDs you purchase online will usually have several important pieces of information written about them, like angle, intensity (mcd), wavelength(nm), power consumption, size.

1. In the first step you must select the types(brightness and color) of leds that you are using and how many leds you want to light up. In this simple circuit you will be in one way limited by the amount of voltage that can be safely provided for your project.

2. Find out how big voltage you will have or need from your power supply, than you should take a look for the diodes voltage specification on the manufacturers site or on the packaging.
In case that you don’t find this information you can estimate:
Blue (430 nm) 4.6 V
White 3.3 V
Blue 3.3 V
True Green 3.3 V
Green 2.2 V
Yellow 2.1 V
Red or Orange 2.0 V

For example if you would like to have 3 White Leds in your simple led circuit, than you will need 3 x 3.3V = 9.9V.
3. In these step we will choose from where will we power up the simple led circuit:
a. DC voltage, where you can use 9V, AA or AAA batteries which are easy to find, cheap and you can than move around with your led circuit.
b. AC voltage, from where you can get constant power and the simplest way is to use a wall plug. But first you must cut the end of the plug and using a multimeter, you must see which is the negative and positive wire.
AC voltage may even be designed in the circuit. AC will only drive the LED half of the time since the voltage travels in waves. A full-wave bridge rectifier can be used to fully power LEDs. This is fundamentally what the wall wart is doing for you.
You must find a power supply bigger than the calculated voltage (>9.9V) and if you are driving a big number of leds than current can be also important.

4. LED's cannot be connected directly to the battery or power supply. The LED will be instantly destroyed because the current is too big. The current power must be reduced. The simplest way to do this is by using a resistor. Calculate the LED resistor value with the following formula:

LED Resistor Value, R=(supply voltage - LED voltage) / LED current

Supply voltage - The voltage obtained from a power source for operation of a circuit
Led voltage - look at step 2
LED current - is 20 mA (this is a typical value if not specified else by the manufacturer)

If the resistor value is not available, then pick the nearest greater standard resistor value. In case you require to increase the battery life you can select a higher resistor value to reduce current. The reduced current will lead to a dimmer LED.

5. You can soldier the wires directly together, use crimp connectors, or use a tiny circuit board. Choose the best technique based on the size of your project.

6. The final step is to mount the LEDs in your project. Radio Shack and others sellers sell plastic or chrome LED holders that make a professional looking mount easy. You can add momentary push buttons or on/off switches to your simple LED circuits.

Building a simple LED circuit is an easy project.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Why LED tube light are future over traditional fluorescent tube light ?

LED Tube Lights are sometimes erroneously called LED fluorescent tubes. An LED tube light is actually an LED bulb that is designed to resemble a fluorescent tube light in its dimensions and fixture options. The similarities finish with the shape.

These type of lights are based on innovative solid-state lighting know-how while fluorescent tubes are powered by a know-how that is at least a generation elderly. LEDs have taken advantage of the phosphor know-how developed to help improve the performance of fluorescent tubes and have successfully leapfrogged several years worth of development that goes in to improving any lighting know-how. Today LED tube lights deliver equal or better lighting performance with only a fraction of the energy consumption of the traditional fluorescent tube lights.

1. Energy-saving, the brightness of LED tube light is same as that of traditional fluorescent tube light; it can save more than 70% energy than fluorescent tube.

2. Long life time, it is more than 50,000 hours, no maintenance, and can save labor cost.

3. Environment friendly, LED tube light will no ultraviolet and infrared radiation, no mercury pollution and other poisonous materials (when the fluorescent tube break, it will release mercury which is harmful to human health). And less heat release; old fluorescent tube can be used again.

4. No flash, start fast, is the best light source to protect human eyes.

5. No noisy, because LED tube light don’t need ballast and starter.

6. Solid light source, easy to be shipped and prevent vibration; PC material is not easy to be broke and pressed.

7. Wide application, can be used in office building, factory, shopping mall, school, public area and home lighting and decoration.

8. No mosquito and other bugs (on the contrary, when fluorescent tube is working, it release out ultraviolet and attract mosquito come), but LED tube will not give out ultraviolet to attract mosquito, this ensure clear and comfortable environment.

9. Rich color, can make LED tube at different color to meet different requirements.

10. Broad usage, the shape and size of LED tube light is same as fluorescent tube, people can use LED tube to replace fluorescent tube directly.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Led-World Exclusive - Energy Star label for Toshiba’s innovative LED lamps

Date Announced: 26 Jul 2011

Toshiba International Corporation – Toshiba International Corporation announced today that twenty of its long-lasting, high quality, energy-efficient LED lamps have received the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star® label. An Energy Star qualified LED lamp uses up to 75% less energy and lasts at least 15 times longer than comparable incandescent lighting.

The Toshiba lamps listed on the Energy Star certified product list include select models of the MR16, PAR 20, PAR 30, and PAR 38 product offering. Additional Toshiba products are currently undergoing Energy Star testing and will be certified in the near future.

“The Energy Star program looks not only at the energy efficiency of a product but also the light quality, which needs to remain consistent over time,” said Ken Honeycutt, Senior Vice President and Chief Venture Executive, Toshiba International Corporation LED Lighting Systems Division. “At Toshiba, we are very proud to have earned the Energy Star label and remain committed to delivering the highest quality LED lighting products.”

To qualify for Energy Star, LED lighting products must pass a variety of tests to prove that the products will display the following characteristics:

• Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies • Light output remains constant over time • Excellent color quality • Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting

In a bold move demonstrating the company’s commitment to helping make LED technology the future of lighting, Toshiba abandoned production of incandescent lamps in March 2010. Toshiba is the first major lighting manufacturer to proactively discontinue the production of incandescent lamps.

While Toshiba LED Lighting is relatively new to North America, Toshiba is one of the largest lighting companies and LED lamp manufacturers in the world. The first product Toshiba ever produced was an incandescent light bulb in 1890, and since then the company has been a leader in lighting fixtures and lamps in Japan.

About Energy Star

Energy Star was started by EPA in 1992 as a market-based partnership to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency. Today, the Energy Star label can be found on more than 60 different kinds of products as well as new homes and commercial and industrial buildings that meet strict energy-efficiency specifications set by EPA. Last year alone, with the help of Energy Star, Americans saved approximately $18 billion on their energy bills while preventing greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to the annual emissions of 33 million vehicles.

About Toshiba International Corporation

Toshiba International Corporation (TIC) is a Toshiba America Inc. (TAI) Group Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Toshiba Corporation. TIC is headquartered in Houston, Texas and employs approximately 1,100 people. TIC provides application solutions to a wide range of industries including lighting systems, industrial, power systems, and transmission and distribution systems. For more information about TIC, please visit

About Toshiba International Corporation’s LED Lighting Systems Division Toshiba International Corporation’s LED Lighting Systems Division provides the North American market with a variety of high‐efficiency LED products. Drawing upon Toshiba’s 120‐year heritage of lighting innovations in Japan and world‐class electronic and semi-conductor technologies, The LED Lighting Systems Division is emerging as a leader in solid state lighting. The LED Lighting Systems Division is committed to providing lighting solutions that enhance the quality of life and meet the diverse needs of its customers. Further information is also available online at

Friday, July 22, 2011

Led-World Exclusive Comparison - LED TV vs LCD TV

When buying a TV, you might ask what is the best view, an LED or LCD TV. LED TV With the increasingly widespread, it is important to know what could be better to buy a TV LED.

When it comes to buying new TVs, the only time you should now have an LCD TV is that if you are buying a TV with a budget or can not find a TV LED on the size you need. Other TV shows are much cheaper LED TVs, but the price difference is down and soon find TVs LED to be so cheap.

Price aside, televisions LEDs have many advantages over LCD. They have a much better contrast ratio and black levels, better color accuracy, and power consumption. The only thing is to wait and see how long you can last TV LED compared to LCD TVs. This can not be determined yet because the LEDs are new televisions.

The contrast ratio of reason and black levels are much better on these sets because they use technology that can control and adjust the backlight. LCD TVs, the screen is to block the light turning the glass LCD. This ends up causing the television to have a contrast ratio of just less darkening.

When it comes to producing better color accuracy, LED backlit color TV dominates other TV. Color backlight allows the TV to produce very realistic colors. However, some TVs use white LED backlight, which is not much of an improvement in LCD televisions.

TV LEDs also have a better viewing angle. This is very important as you can watch TV in a wider angle. Most TVs have suffered a lot when it comes to viewing angles. Usually does not work so well when you go beyond 30 degrees off center. However, LED TV viewing angles are fantastic, and are almost as good as plasma TVs.

Energy consumption is very important because you can save money in the long term. TV LEDs have a slight improvement over LCD TVs when it comes to energy consumption, and near the power consumption of plasma TVs. However, this improvement in energy consumption is only true for edge-lit TVs, rather than local regulations LED TV.

When it comes to buying the TV, it is advisable to get a TV LED, since it seems to have many advantages over most LCD rivals. With advantages such as energy consumption, better viewing angles, contrast ratio and color accuracy, you can not go wrong with a TV LED

Thursday, July 14, 2011

2012 Peugeot 508 with its distinctive LED lights visible day and night

The Peugeot 508 RXH become one of the world’s most fuel-efficient vehicles off the road when it goes on sale in Europe in the second quarter of 2012. Peugeot Automobiles Australia spokesman Scott Williams said the local distributor was “actively considering” the 508 RXH to Australia, Australia and his colleague Richard Grant Peugeot repeated his enthusiasm. After the launch of the sedan and 508 SW in the spring of 2011, acclaimed for its elegant style, his presence and high quality construction and attention to detail, RXH 508 again raises the profile of all Peugeot strengthen its technological leadership.

His posture and his specific design immediately put it on the road worldwide. Unique, exquisite, high, increased, is also distinguished by a unique visual signature, with its distinctive LED lights visible day and night, giving an impression of ‘lions’ three vertical grip on each side of your grill ‘floating’ style What is even more impressive. To enhance its unique character, the benefits within 508 RXH special features with different colors and luxurious materials such as premium quality interior and upholstery. Aspects covered will also be equipped with a luxurious range of technologies for the Peugeot 508 RXH. this model will be equipped with Keyless Go system & Open, electric front seats, head-up display, 18 “wheels, panoramic glass roof black, black acoustic laminated side windows and cutting-edge audio and satellite navigation units.

Outside Peugeot 508 2012 RXH go with three vertical stripes on the girl LED on each side to make it more like the futuristic car. In the foot, this car will be equipped with 18 “wheels, and another feature will be added, such as panoramic sunroof and Head Up Display. RXH The 508 can operate in electric-only mode, while Peugeot has not revealed the vehicle ‘s “zero-emissions ” range. The French carmaker said RXH 508 consumes less than 4.2 liters of diesel per 100 km (56 mpg U.S.) in combined cycle and emits 109 g / km of CO2. Peugeot 508, 2012 RXH diesel-electric hybrid can operate in electric mode only then, however, the Peugeot did not reveal the driving range yet.

Peugot 508 RXH says consumes less than 4.2 liters of diesel per 100 km on the combined cycle, which is the equivalent of 56 miles per gallon U.S. Equipped with the 2.0 l HDi FAP HYbrid4 drive train, the world’s first full diesel -electric hybrid engine, the 508 extends RXH driving pleasure and freedom to travel anywhere on all roads. With a maximum power of 147 kW (200 hp), four-wheel drive and a maximum torque of 450 Nm, 508 RXH designed to meet all uses in a variety of conditions. It also opens new perspectives in the segment, offering a 100% electric ZEV mode, ideal for city driving and to reduce consumption in the combined cycle of 4.2 l/100 km with CO2 emissions of 109 * g / km.

LED Lighting: Public Transportation Vehicles Market Forecast (2010-2017)

Mass-Transit Vehicles. According to the ElectroniCast report, the global consumption quantity (unit rc helicopter and car market place volume) of LED-based lamps/devices in public transportation vehicles reached 17.0 million units worldwide in 2010 (a 22% increase over 2009).

For the purposes of this study, ElectroniCast defines public transportation (public-transit / mass-transit) as a shared passenger transportation service, which is available for use by the general public. Public transportation vehicles, included in this study, are listed below. Note: aircraft and taxis are not included in this analysis. The LED lighting public transportation vehicles global market is segmented into the following vehicle (type) categories:

• Bus • Rail and Rapid Transit Vehicles o Light-Rail, Tram/Trolley/Streetcar o Rapid Transit/Metro and Subway/Underground o High-Speed, Commuter/Intercity and Long-Distance • Ferries/Watercraft

The market forecast is also segmented into the following product-type:

• LED Linear Lamps (Tubes) • LED-based Back Light Unit (BLU) Bars for LCD Display Screens • LED Signage/Destination Sign Board Modules • Other/Miscellaneous LED Lamps and Luminaries

� aston martin �Market analysis and technology forecasting are complex tasks. Any predictions of the shape and trends of technology and economic movement start from the notion that the germ of what will be important tomorrow is present, although smaller or larger or in a different form, in our environment today. However, taking as a basis for a prediction the assumptions of current, conventional belief creates a set of preconceived notions that can lead to serious mistakes. ElectroniCast, instead, looks to the basic driving forces," said Jeff D. Montgomery, chairman and founder of ElectroniCast Consultants.

� auto part �ElectroniCast then considers customer expectations of near term growth in their application, plus forecasted economic payback of investment, technology trends and changes in government regulations and funding/tax-break legislation/rules in each geographical region, to derive estimated growth rates of quantity and price of each product subset in each application. These forecasted growth rates are combined with the estimated baseline data to obtain the long-range forecasts at the lowest detailed level of each product and application. In this ElectroniCast report, we have covered these issues, by providing information on technology, product supplies, overviews of modes of public transportation, economic and government actions, and so on," Montgomery added.

According to Electronicast, in 2010 the quantity (volume) of LED-based lamps/devices used in public transportation vehicles reached 17.0 million units. During the 2010-2017 timeline, ElectroniCast forecasts the quantity consumption will grow at an average annual rate of 28.5 percent, reaching 92.2 million units in 2017 (see Figure). The market forecast data in the ElectroniCast report refers to consumption for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data.

The Asia Pacific region (APAC) American region is forecast to maintain the lead in relative market share throughout the forecast period; however growing at a slightly slower pace than the EMEA region. In general, the EMEA region (Europe, Middle East and Africa countries) has been a bit slower to embrace some of the LED lighting solutions versus other regions; however, the trend is changing and the EMEA consumption is set to increase at a steady pace.

The America region, especially the United States, loves the automobile with one occupant per car during the commuting process. However, pushed by many ecological concerns, economical pressures and other factors, the c ferrari all for public transportation is considered an option for some commuters. The America region has a relatively high LED product take-rate per vehicle, especially in the United States and Canada. The America region is forecast to maintain strong growth, especially with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy green-tech stimulus funding and other programs that are supportive of LED-based lighting solutions. Also, Latin America, with an emerging modernization of public transit in the bus category, will provide new opportunities for LED producers throughout the forecast period.

This 559-page market forecast report is available immediately from ElectroniCast Consultants. For detailed information on this or other services provided by ElectroniCast, please contact Theresa Hosking, Marketing/Sales; (Telephone/USA: 707/275-9397)

ElectroniCast Consultants – specializes in forecasting trends in technology forecasting, markets and applications forecasting, strategic planning and consulting. ElectroniCast Consultants, as a technology-based independent forecasting firm, serves industrial companies, trade associations, government agencies, communications and manufacturing companies, as well as the investment/financial community. Reduction of the risk of major investment decisions is the main benefit provided. ElectroniCast Consultants' goal is to understand the challenges and opportunities facing clients and to provide timely, accurate information for strategic planning.

According to ElectroniCast, the annual global consumption quantity (unit volume) of LED-based lamps/devices in public transportation vehicles is forecast to increase from 17 million units last year in 2010 to 98.2 million units in the year 2017.

LED Lamps/Devices Used in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Consumption Quantity/Volume Market Forecast (Source: ElectroniCast Consultants)

Friday, May 20, 2011

Led-World Exclusive - All-LED-lights Mercedes-Benz CL on 2011 Shanghai Auto Show

"Innovation for Tomorrow" is the slogan of the fourteenth session of the Shanghai auto show. Based on this concept, the auto show brings many new technologies to the first facing the public. Mercedes-Benz CLS enjoys its debut on the auto show. Its 71 LED lights design makes it the focus. 2011 Shanghai Auto Show

LED has been used in automotive lighting for some time, but now there are only two kinds of vehicles applying the all-LED headlights: Mercedes-Benz CLS and Audi A8. According to manufacturers, those Audi A8 sales domestically use Xenon headlights and all LED lights are only options. Then here are the questions: What about all LED headlights? Will them become the future mainstream?

Currently, a single LED light source intensity is still less than xenon lamps. Among the majority of the car lights, LED lamp only plays a supporting role for Xenon Headlights. To reach the same brightness, even high-brightness LED requires an additional group LED lights comparing with the xenon lamps. And this group of high-brightness LED costs much and release much more heat than xenon lights.

However, the manufacturers tell us that, through some special power conversion device, LED light can issue different color temperature. The car headlights of Mercedes-Benz CLS can transform the color temperature under certain conditions and can be used as fog lights. Audi A8's daytime running lights can be converted into turn signals.

At present, LED lights have been widely used as auxiliary lights for vehicles. In turn lights, fog lights, and many other places LED Lights have replaced other sources. However, the high cost of LED brightness and thermal are the problems that R & D personnel facing. LED lighting as the main front Car Headlights is still immature. If this bottleneck breaks, LED will be the future of the automotive field.

Now, if you want to replace your car headlights, HID Xenon Car Headlight Kits are still your best option. They are providing driver better visibility and nigh vision for safety concern. is a professional wholesaler and dropship supplier of Car Eletronics. The products are now at low China wholesale price for all its clients.

Philips introduces 75W equivalent LED light

Philips claims that the new lamp will create light that will be indistinguishable from a standard incandescent light bulb.

LED lamps are expected to revolutionize the lighting industry because of their sharply reduced power consumption and their long life compared with standard incandescents. But to date, market acceptance has been slow given the high initial cost and limited brightness. LED lamps have only been able to emit light equivalent to a 60-watt standard bulb.

On Friday, Philips will look to change that game by announcing that it will market an LED lamp later this year whose light output equals that of a 75-watt incandescent.
The bulb, the EnduraLED A21, will retail for about $40, last 25,000 hours and produce 1100 lumens of light by consuming just 17 watts of electricity. (A standard 75-watt lampfrom GE produces 1170 lumens.)
Over the life of the lamp, Massachusetts consumers will save $300 in electricity costs alone and will break even in 1.6 years.
"The trick with an A lamp is how to project 1100 lumens in 360 degrees," said Ed Crawford, general manager of lamps for Philips Lighting, North America. "It's absolutely more difficult to do 1100 lumens in an omni-directional lamp."
To accomplish that, the new lamp, available around September or October, contains 18 LED modules fixed in multiple directions. Various metal fins surrounding the lamp are used to dissipate heat.

Monday, April 4, 2011

Salute to Father of LED

Nick Holonyak
Zeigler, Illinois; 1928

NICK HOLONYAK, JR. was born in Zeigler, Illinois on November 3, 1928. he attended the University of Illinois and received a B.S. (1950), M.S. (1951), and Ph.D. (1954) in Electrical Engineering. A Texas Instruments Fellow, he was John Bardeen’s first student. He later was employed as a member of technical staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1954-55) and helped demonstrate feasibility of diffused-impurity silicon devices, including transistors, oxide-masked transistors, p-n-p-n switches and SCR’S. He served with the U.S. Army Signal Corps (1955-57) at Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey, and at Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Japan. In 1957 he joined the Advanced Semiconductor Laboratory of the General Electric Company (Syracuse) and made contributions in the areas of power and signal p-n-p-n devices (including invention of the shorted-emitter and symmetrical SCR and thyristor switches—TRIAC’s, etc.), tunnel diodes, phonon-assisted tunneling (the initial observation of inelastic tunneling and the beginning of tunneling spectroscopy), halide transport and first epitaxial growth of III-V compounds and compound mixtures (including heterojunctions, 1960-63), double injection and deep-impurity-level effects, junction luminescence (GaAsP LED’s), and III-V alloy semiconductor lasers (visible spectrum, GaAsP, 1962). His work from 1960 to 1962 on GaAsP and the initial construction in 1960 of a p-n junction in the crystal system, and a visible-spectrum (red) laser in 1962, led to the commercial introduction of red GaAsP LED’s (and eventually to the concept of an “ultimate lamp”). He is the inventor of the first practical light emitting diode (the GaAsP LED), which also marks the beginning in the use of III-V alloys in semiconductor devices (including heterojunctions.)

Since 1963 he has been a professor at the University of Illinois in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and is a member of the University of Illinois Center for Advanced Study. He and his students have worked primarily on III-V semiconductors, III-V alloy crystal growth and the demonstration of red-orange-yellow-green stimulated emission in In1-xGaxP, In1-xGaxP1-zAsz and A1xGa1-xAs1-yPy, stimulated emission on nitrogen trap transitions in the alloys GaAs1-xPx and In1-xGaxP, and heterojunctions in various ternary III-V’s and in the quaternaries A1xGa1-xAs1-yPy and In1-xGaxP1-zAsz. He and his students were the first to make quaternary III-V semiconductor devices (LEDs and lasers.) Since 1976 he has been concerned with quantum-well (QW) light emitters and lasers, and with impurity-induced layer disordering, which shifts lower gap quantum well layers to higher gap bulk crystal and serves as a basis for integrated optoelectronic devices. In 1990 he and his students introduced (~400˚C) stable native oxides on, and buried in, Al-bearing III-V compounds and demonstrated their use in optoelectronic devices (LEDs and lasers). He and his students were the first (1977) to construct p-n diode quantum well lasers (InP-InGaAsp, LPE) and were the first to achieve (1978) continuous (cw) room temperature (300 K) laser operation of quantum well heterostructures and superlattices, and later (1982) strained layer quantum well heterostructures. They are the source of the name “quantum well laser.” Most recently (with Dupuis, 2001) he introduced tunneling-coupled quantum-well-assisted quantum-dot lasers, and (with Feng, 2004) the light-emitting three-port operation of heterojunction bipolar transistors, including QW-based HBTs and, after 57 years, a transistor laser.

He is co-author of the book SEMICONDUCTOR CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964) and PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS (Prentice-Hall, 1989), editor of the Prentice-Hall series “Solid State Physical Electronics,” and has served on the Editorial Board of the PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE (1966-1974), SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS (1970-1991), and JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS and APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS (1978-1980). He received a General Electric Cordiner Award (1962), and for his contributions to the field of visible-spectrum light emitting diodes and diode lasers, he is the recipient of the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Award (1973), the John Scott Medal (1975, City of Philadelphia), the first GaAs Symposium Award with Welker Medal (1976), the IEEE Jack A. Morton Award (1981), the Electrochemical Society Solid State Science and Technology Award (1983), the Sigma Xi Monie A. Ferst Award (1988), the IEEE Edison Medal (1989), the Charles Hard Townes Award of the Optical Society of America (1992), the National Academy of Sciences Award for the Industrial Application of Science (1993), American Electronics Association 50th Anniversary Award (1993, “Inventing America’s Future”), American Society for Engineering Education Centennial Medallion (1993), Vladimir Karapetoff Eminent Members’ Award of Eta Kappa Nu (1994), TMS John Bardeen Award (1995, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society), 2000 IEEE Third Millennium Medal, Frederic Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America (2001), the IEEE Medal of Honor (2003), the Washington Award (Western Society Engineers, 2004), the Lemelson-MIT Prize (2004), and the MRS Von Hippel Award (2004). In 1990 he received the U.S. National Medal of Science and in 2003 the 2002 U.S. National Medal of Technology. In 1992 he received from Northwestern University an honorary doctor of science degree and was elected an honorary member of the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). In 1994 he received an honorary doctor of engineering degree from Notre Dame University, in 1995 the Japan Prize, and in 2003 the Global Energy International Prize (Russia). In 1993 he was appointed (University of Illinois) the John Bardeen Chair Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and of Physics, a chair sponsored by the Sony Corporation. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (1973), a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1984), foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1999), eminent member of Eta Kappa Nu (1998), fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1984), fellow of the IEEE (life fellow, 1994), fellow of the American Physical Society, fellow of the Optical Society of America, fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2003), and laureate of the Lincoln Academy of Illinois (2005). In 2008 he was inducted into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Semiconductors, quantum well and dot lasers, LEDs, transistor lasers, optoelectronics

Professor Holonyak has made fundamental contributions to the science and technology of elemental and compound semiconductors, including major achievements in solid-state lasers and incoherent light emitters. He invented the first practical light-emitting diode and is the first to make III-V alloy devices (III-V alloys now part of all high performance lasers and LEDs, U.S. Patent #3,249,473). He and his students built the first p-n diode quantum well lasers and introduced the name quantum well lasers (also vital now in all lasers and LEDs). He is known also for his work on early diffused silicon devices, tunnel diodes, and silicon-controlled rectifiers, including invention of the symmetrical switch. (TRIAC) used in wall light dimmers. He was the first to observe inelastic tunneling, which is the beginning of tunneling spectroscopy. Among the 39 patents he holds on semiconductor materials and devices are the fundamental patents on quantum-well layer disordering and on the aluminum-based III-V oxide, now being exploited in optoelectronics (and a licensed U of I technology).

For his contributions to the field of semiconductor materials and devices, visible light-emitting diodes, diode lasers, and quantum-well heterostructure lasers, he received the IEEE’s Morris N. Liebmann Award, Jack A. Morton Award, Edison Medal, and Third Millennium Medal; John Scott Medal of the City of Philadelphia; Solid State Science and Technology Award of the Electrochemical Society; GaAs Symposium Award with Welker Medal; Monie A. Ferst Award of Sigma Xi; Charles H. Townes Award and Frederick Ives Medal (2001) of the Optical Society of America; National Academy of Sciences Award for the Industrial Application of Science; American Electronics Association 50th Anniversary Award; American Society for Engineering Education Centennial Medallion; Vladimir Karapetoff Eminent Member’s Award of Eta Kappa Nu; and John Bardeen Award of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.

He received the 1990 National Medal of Science, an honorary doctorate of science from Northwester University (1992), and an honorary doctor of engineering degree from Notre Dame University (1994). He is an honorary member of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). In 1995 he received the Japan Prize. In 1997 the Optical Society of America established the Nick Holonyak, Jr. Award; in 1998 he was elected an Eminent member of Eta Kappa Nu; and in 1999 he was elected a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Eight former graduate students are elected members of the National Academy of Engineering. In 2003 he received the Medal of Honor of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE); Global Energy International Prize, Russia; U.S. Medal of Technology; and was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2004 he received the Washington Award, of the Western Society of Engineers, the Lemelson-MIT Prize of invention, the MRS Von Hipple Award; and in 2005 was named a Laureate of the Lincoln Academy of Illinois. In 2006 he became a Member of the Consumer Electronics Assn Hall of Fame, and in 2008 was inducted into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame.

His research now is concerned with coupled quantum-dot/quantum-well lasers, light-emitting transistors (LETs), and transistor lasers (LTs), which has resulted in fundamental changes in transistors and in lasers.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Led-World Exclusive - Top 6 Most Expensive MotorBikes in World

Motorcycles have been one of the most favorite and commonly used modes of transport for the general public for around 150 years now. It was in the 1860s that the first motorcycle was designed by Sylvester Howard Roper who was an American.

Since then the two-wheeler has seen tremendous changes. They are trendier, sleeker, fastest and most expensive. Here, we present you with a list of world’s most expensive bikes. Just have a look – “Starting from most expensive on the planet”

Dodge Tomahawk V10 Superbike

Cost – $555,000 (24969405 INR)

This is probably the only two-wheeler which has four wheels. The bike is regarded as an ‘automotive sculpture’ but yet street illegal in the United States. A superbike in the real sense, the bike has 8.3 liter engine, which is equivalent to 505 cubic inch. The bike is equipped with as many as 10 cylinders. It takes just around 2.5 seconds to reach the 60 mph mark and can be driven at a maximum speed of 400 mph.

Ecosse Titanium Series RR Limited Edition

Cost - $275,000 (12372228 INR)

This limited edition bike is limited in the real sense. Only 10 units of the bike are manufactured. As the name suggests – limited edition, is a powerhouse when it comes to the capacity of the engine and the speed it generates. Sheer imagination is enough when you know that the bike has a 2150 cc engine with more than 200 hp. The bike has a watch, manufactured by French watchmakers BRM, which is made exclusively for this bike only.

Macchia Nera Concept Bike

Cost – $201,000 (9042974 INR)

The Macchia Nera concept bike happens to be one of the best bikes in this segment. The bike sports an engine that is loosely built around the Ducati 998RS engine. A side view of the bike will show you the structure of the bike. The engine is visible along with the detailed molding and the engine components.

However, the unique thing about the bike is that in spite of such a heavy built, it is extremely light – as far as the category in which it is built is concerned.

Icon Sheene

Cost – $160,000 (7198387 INR)

Icon Sheene was produced exclusively in the memory of Andrew Morris, who was one of the most successful British Grand Prix motorcycle champion. When he passed away, he was 52 years old. That is why only 52 of such bikes were produced. The bike has a 250 hp engine and has a whopping 1400 cc engine – nothing more than a flying experience.

The thing worth mentioning about this bike is that, in spite of being such a heavy bike, the Icon Sheene has only a couple of spokes in the wheels. Sounds strange and happening, but that is the fact.

MTT Turbine Super Bike

Cost – $150,000 (6748488 INR)

The second last bike in the series is the MTT Turbine Super Bike. MTT Turbine Super Bike aka Y2K Turbine Super Bike is not in the list for nothing. This bike is a combination of both most expensive and super fast bike. The bike also holds the Guinness World Record for being the most powerful motorcycle which has entered a series of production.

The engine has a power of more than 300 horse power. The unique thing about this bike is that it is loaded with various gadgets. It has a camera mounted on the rear, it has a LCD color display, it has a radar detector, a one touch ‘Smart Start’ among others gadgets.

MV-Augusta F4CC

Cost – $120,000 (5398790 INR)

The MV-Augusta F4CC was designed and created by Claudio Castiglioni, who was MV’s director. Certainly, this bike took birth through passion for having a bike that would not only be eye-catching but would also serve the purpose of the consumers of owning something different and unique.

The MV-Augusta F4CC can be driven at a maximum speed of 315 kmph which is around 195 mph. This tremendous speed can be achieved curtsey the 1078 cc powerful engine. It is also featured with 198 hp power generation. The model number of each bike is shown near the steering column.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Led-World Exclusive - Audi A6 will soon flaunt all LED headlamps

Nowadays one can see many cars fitted with those LED lights, but do any of you know who the pioneer of those cute yet smart headlamps was? So for your information, it was Audi, who basically started these LED headlamps with the launch of its all new (at that time) Audi R8. Anyways, now it seems that Audi is trying to get it even better with the Audi A6. Audi is trying to improvise on the same for its much praised Audi A6. Till now, car manufacturers use both LED with Xenon headlamps. So, it will be the first time when a sedan especially will flaunt an all LED headlamp cluster. Later on even the Audi A8 and Audi A7 will also join the club. Besides this, all LED headlamps, this car will still be offered with Bi-Xenon and Halogen headlamps also.

There are numerous reasons to choose a full LED headlamp over the normal Bi-Xenon or Halogen headlamps. Say for example these ultra powerful LEDs produce a strong white beam exactly like a day light but only consume not more than 4watts of energy. Because of the four one chip, five two chips LEDs the energy consumption is really low. These new headlights in the Audi A6 will also have an added feature which is high beam assistant and special adaptive light control. Wondering what’s that? It is one of the features that will make you drool for it for sure. These headlamps are directly connected to a camera facing forward which will continuously send signals to the headlamps about any change recorded in the ambient light. I guess you know what this headlamp will do. Yes, it will perform accordingly. So, it seems that Audi is really making head turns with its new inventions.

Future development trend of LED in car light

After the developing stage that LED car head-light is shown in technology proving, concept car that is gone through in recent years,etc., welcomed the expected prospect of entering the market of producing car of applying to amount at last, there are three its significant incident: Will Ling of Toyota LS600h in the world first to adopt, shine the listing bus of the light source in front of the LED, but it has employed LED only on the low beam light, the long-range light source is still a halogenic light. The Audi R8 regards the whole LED head-light as its main characteristic, LED adopted in and the car illumination is offering by Lumileds and Osram Company. Cadillac EscaladePlatinum platinum edition multi-functional sport car, it is first multi-functional sport cars which adopt LED head-light.

Hinder LED light source from opening up the unfavourable factor of the automobile-used market rapidly

Does the above-mentioned milestone incident mean LED head-light will set up horses and become innovative technology which will decide the automobile-used light source field? According to the estimation by experts: Perhaps can not. The cost that it is LED can drop continuously according to the prediction speed of one Mole of laws, it is low to can reach with HID for it to want ‘ The high strength discharges The equal price that the xenon lamp is equal to has been still needed for many years too; And it can be comparable to halogenic light if the cost of LED family should be dropped to, need to pass a period of longer time course.

Draw according to Hella sea Fischer, president of company, claim automobile-used scale of LED account for their light source the intersection of market and a few percent little share only at present, so to the type in enormous quantities correctly ‘ Style such as GM / Chevrolet Malibu fund of one Complete network supply utmost point interested in. But LED wants to reach to the stock level of Malibu style so in enormous quantities, still needs to overcome a series of technology and cost difficult problem, have course in ten years that will go at least.

Big the open paces that point out, LED enters the market are really a little slower than the ones that originally expected generation, we had predicted in 2004: LED the intersection of car and lantern fair blowout enters the market, and eliminate HID soon. Obviously, present situation to so, can expect the intersection of LED and technology fast a bit than reality gradual progress. It seems it is not the only factor of hindering LED from appearing on the market that the cost is high, still a challenge difficult problem of technical feature needs solving.

For example, in terms of single light source, the illumination intensity of LED still shows insufficiently. And can not reach followingly and satisfactorily and calculate only: It contributes to narrowing taking up the space and easy to be flexible to fix up of the car lamps and lanterns to cut down and form number of LED light source which makes the lamps and lanterns up, and can simplify and light systematic wiring and install and reduce the production cost.

The major state that LED supplies the chain is at present: It is bright Osram to draw LED light source component which supplies the common Cadillac Escalade style in the sea to the department of Europe Purchase; And small Zhyuan’s car light Koito LED last light source of the Companies products, be lasted LS600h style in Toyota and then; The intersection of Philip and Lumileds give AL the intersection of LED and the intersection of light source and supply ‘ The car lights The company, is and then disposed the car light system for the Audi R8 by the latter.

According to American-European manager of business department of Koito, they will not limit the kind of the light source and purchase the manufacturer for being firm and oneself rowing, no matter at whom does it produce in ‘ Philip, Ou department are bright, or Toyota Gosei Can all buy. Obviously, the flexibility that the first class suppliers who light the systematic part attempt to keep oneself purchasing the light source components and parts, want to observe it: Which device products technology of the manufacturer can progress fastest, the cost performance is highest.

LED criticize for the photoelectricity of the goods to change nowadays ‘ The light energy density The index reaches 80 lumen per watt ‘ 80lm/W The above, but HID light is 90lm/W, the halogenic light is 201m/W. According to another draw in the sea and notify: The latest LED researches and develops this index already up to 161lm/W of the prototype. Draw in the sea and also predict: During 3-5 years in the future, LED luminous intensity of releasing from the same consumption chip will be promoted by 50%. This not only means LED lamps and lanterns will be more bright but also reflect the cutting down of its energy consumption, thus improve the fuel economy of the completed car.

It is estimated, mileage that the ones that replace mpg per gallon of fuel that the halogenic lamps and lanterns can promote the completed car with LED go About 0.25 indexes. And when going to Europe to turn on the regulation of going of the light in the daytime, expand promoting value of this mpg to 0.5. Ling Zhi’s style manager points out, there will be very great contribution to employ LED lamps and lanterns economic improvement to fuel of completed car.

But strong the intersection of density and high LED want, give out more heat too only, and compactness of lamps and lanterns fix up, make the area suitable for dispelling the heat trend towards lightly again. It is much fewer than halogenic light or HID lamps and lanterns that the ones that belong to low energy consumption LED device of the semi-conductive classification truly generate heat, but the majority of the latter’s heat is turned into not including the lamps and lanterns device, and LED although low power dissipation grow hot to want, seal, come on, conduct inside small silicon chip heat while being little.

The hot management of LED is a great difficult problem

Even smaller heat will concentrate to go up to the chip size device conducted and dispersed, because the heat capacity of the device is small will cause the rising suddenly of LED temperature. The working temperature of LED must keep in 150 ranges of under ℃. A kind of solution to this heat-dissipating problem is: Use the intersection of number and more LED give out light component in one lamps and lanterns, let the single caloric value of one be relatively little, it makes it apt to dispel the heat to and then fix up them in the larger space. Tactics adopted at being small the intersection of Zhyuan and car light for will LS600h related head-light Ling of Toyota this.

Cadillac EscaladePlatinum each head-light is formed by 7 LED fluorescent lamps, 5 among them are used in light beam of short range, another 2 are regarded as the long-range light source. They all have their own active heat-dissipating devices –Cool the fan ‘ Similar to disposing the small fan in the desk-top computer .

Draw and claim, it is a design field especially bothered about and troubled by them that heat is managed according to the sea, lay particular emphasis on relying on the fictitious artificial means to assess optimizing in the scheme is chosen, and is imitating tools ‘ Artificial software package If you can’t select to use, pass by textual criticism of experimental datas enough. Point out he,for heat last heat-conduction challenge of problem of management not merely,can with the aid of ” The hot pool ” The device gets the heat that LED component produces out, and will solve and ventilate the problem, let heat distribute out of lamps and lanterns device. If it is not obviously enough to only depend on natural ventilation, so draw the decision and add the built-in fan for the lamps and lanterns in the sea